Bio Glasses have been in used in dentistry for almost 2 decades. According to researchers the addition of fluoride and increased levels of phosphate deliver significant incremental benefits in dental care.
Phosphates drive remineralisation rate, reduce time to commence remineralisation and pH levels required
Reduced pH rises from the inclusion of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite. Apatite formation favoured by increasing phosphate in glass
Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Effect of glass design and structure on degradation, pH and apatite formation in simulated body fluid
Fluoride in glass forms fluorapatite, increasing phosphate favours apatite formation.
The ability of bioactive glasses to form apatite in body fluids is also used in toothpaste for treating dentine hypersensitivity.
Increased phosphate enables apatite formation at lower pH
High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses
An increase in phosphate or fluoride content allowed for apatite formation at lower pH.
High phosphate content fluoride-containing glasses are particularly suited for use in remineralizing dentifrices.
Fluoride drives remineralisation, high levels of fluoride create insoluble calcium fluorite
Addition of fluoride reduced apatite formation 6h vs 7days
Multi-component bioactive glasses of varying fluoride content for treating dentin hypersensitivity
The fluoride-containing bioactive glasses formed apatite from as early as 6h vs 7 days…
Fluoride significantly improved apatite formation of the bioglass, allowing for treatment of dentine hypersensitivity by occlusion of dentinal tubules.
Addition of fluoride to bioglass reduces dentine erosion
Abrasive wear of enamel by bioactive glass-based toothpastes
It would still be desirable to reduce the enamel abrasivity of 45S5 bioglass, since the outermost enamel layer that becomes fluoridated with use of a fluoride toothpaste is very thin and removal of this protective layer by abrasion is likely to promote caries and acid erosion.
Effects of fluoride on in vitro enamel demineralization analyzed by F MAS-NMR.
Fluoride levels above 45ppm lead to the formation of insoluble Calcium Fluoride (fluorite).
At and below 45 ppm [F–] in the solution, F MAS-NMR showed fluoride-substituted apatite formation, and above 45 ppm, calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed in increasing proportions. Further increases in [F–] caused no further reduction in demineralization, but increased the proportion of CaF2 formed.
Remineralisation slow release benefits
Remineralization: Slow release benefits
Optimal remineralization depends on exposure to low concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride for prolonged periods
Remineralization of subsurface enamel lesions requires a considerable amount of exposure time. Orthodontists also are aware that rinses and gels containing high fluoride concentrations do not allow white-spot lesions adjacent to brackets to revert back to the normal translucent luster of sound enamel