Bio Glasses have been in used in dentistry for almost 2 decades. According to researchers the addition of fluoride and increased levels of phosphate deliver significant incremental benefits in dental care.
BioMinF delivers significantly superior tubule occlusion vs Novamin and fluoridated toothpaste
Comparative Evaluation of Desensitizing Dentifrices containing BioMin®, Novamin® and Fluoride on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion before and after a Citric Acid Challenge
The %OCT with BioMin® containing dentifrice was significantly higher than NovaMin® and a control i.e., fluoride containing dentifrice. Biomin ® and Novamin® containing dentifrices showed significant citric acid resistant compared to the fluoride containing dentifrice although the BioMin® containing dentifrice significantly showed better resistant to a citric acid challenge than the NovaMin® containing dentifrice.
Remineralisation of white spot lesions
BioMin can Remineralise White Spot Lesions Surrounding Orthodontic Brackets
Biomin paste has a high capacity to remineralize white spot lesions associated with orthodontic brackets when compared to fluoride application.
BioMin effectively remineralises white spot lesions, 81% higher remin rate than 9,000 ppm gel. Low fluoride enables subsurface remin.
The low fluoride content of the BioMin F (vs. 9,000 ppm fluoride gel), allowed the penetration of BioMin F rich content of calcium and phosphate through the porous enamel sub-surface, causing the re-mineralization of the demineralized enamel lesion rather than remineralizing the outer enamel surface.
Phosphates drive remineralisation rate, reduce time to commence remineralisation and pH levels required
Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Effect of glass design and structure on degradation, pH and apatite formation in simulated body fluid
Fluoride in glass forms fluorapatite, increasing phosphate favours apatite formation.
The ability of bioactive glasses to form apatite in body fluids is also used in toothpaste for treating dentine hypersensitivity.
High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses
An increase in phosphate or fluoride content allowed for apatite formation at lower pH.
High phosphate content fluoride-containing glasses are particularly suited for use in remineralizing dentifrices.
Fluoride drives remineralisation, high levels of fluoride create insoluble calcium fluorite
Abrasive wear of enamel by bioactive glass-based toothpastes
It would still be desirable to reduce the enamel abrasivity of 45S5 bioglass, since the outermost enamel layer that becomes fluoridated with use of a fluoride toothpaste is very thin and removal of this protective layer by abrasion is likely to promote caries and acid erosion.
Fluoride levels above 45ppm lead to the formation of insoluble Calcium Fluoride (fluorite).
At and below 45 ppm [F–] in the solution, F MAS-NMR showed fluoride-substituted apatite formation, and above 45 ppm, calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed in increasing proportions. Further increases in [F–] caused no further reduction in demineralization, but increased the proportion of CaF2 formed.
Remineralisation slow release benefits
Optimal remineralization depends on exposure to low concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride for prolonged periods
Remineralization of subsurface enamel lesions requires a considerable amount of exposure time. Orthodontists also are aware that rinses and gels containing high fluoride concentrations do not allow white-spot lesions adjacent to brackets to revert back to the normal translucent luster of sound enamel